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Special Occupations

Delivery and Clerical Employment in Factory Offices and Service Stores
Newspaper Sales and Delivery
Shoeshiners (Bootblacks)
Child Performers
Child Models


Work in Factory Offices and Service Stores

No one under 16 may work on the factory floor, but 14 or 15 year-olds may work in delivery and desk jobs in a factory office.  The office must be enclosed and separate from the manufacturing area. The office must have a partition at least seven feet high, and must have a separate entrance so that young people may enter or leave without passing through the factory workroom. 

A minor ages 14 or 15 may also work in a delivery job or at a counter in a service store where goods belonging to customers are:

  • Cleaned
  • Pressed
  • Altered
  • Repaired

This includes:

  • Dry cleaning store
  • Tailor shop
  • Shoe repair shop
  • Laundry store
  • Hat cleaning store
  • Similar service store

They may not work near dangerous machinery, equipment or processes.*

*Federal law requires that 14 and 15 year-olds who do any delivery work for retail stores go on foot, by bicycle or by bus. It also forbids them from working in a place where processing (such as laundering or dry cleaning) takes place.

Newspaper Sales and Delivery

There are two major jobs related to newspaper sales and delivery. They are :

  • Newspaper carrier
  • "Street trades"

Newspaper Carriers

A newspaper carrier delivers, or sells and delivers, newspapers, shopping papers, or periodicals to customers at their homes or places of business.

The minimum age for a newspaper carrier is 11. All newspaper carriers from ages 11 through 17 must have a permit.

Allowed hours for newspaper carriers 11 through 17 are: 

  • No more than 4 hours in a school day
  • No more than 5 hours in a non-school day
  • Not before 5 AM
  • Not after 7 PM or 30 minutes before sunset, whichever is later
  • Not during the time when the minor is required to be in school

A Newspaper Carrier Permit is not valid for work as a helper on a newspaper delivery truck that delivers papers to stores or distributors.  It is not valid for work as a helper on a motor vehicle that delivers papers to homes.  Work as a helper on any motor vehicle is forbidden until age 18.

The newspaper publisher or distributor who supplies the papers or periodicals to the carrier must have Workers' Compensation insurance for them. A newspaper publisher or distributor who knowingly permits a newspaper carrier to work in violation of the law will pay a double Workers Compensation award if the minor is hurt. Insurance may only cover half that award.  The publisher or distributor must pay the other half out of pocket.  If there was no insurance, the employer must pay all of it out of pocket.

It is against the law to knowingly supply newspapers or periodicals to a newspaper carrier who does not comply with the rules. The Department of Labor and the police have shared power to enforce this law.

(Note: These newspaper carrier rules do not apply to a minor who sells newspapers at a stand owned either by a candy store proprietor or by a newspaper publisher or distributor. The parts of the Labor Law that apply to minor employed in other industries or occupations cover this.)

Street Trades

The "street trades" are:

  • Selling newspapers or other periodicals on streets or in other public places
  • Shining shoes on streets or in other public places

The minimum age for this work is 14.  Young persons from ages 14 through 17, who work on the street, must have a street trades permit issued by a school official.  They must carry it while working.

Allowed hours for street trades by minors 14 through 17 are:

  • No more than 4 hours on a school day
  • No more than 5 hours on a non-school day
  • Not before 6 AM
  • Not after 7 PM
  • Not during the time when the minor is required to be in school 

The Department of Labor and the police have shared power to enforce the street trades rules.

Child Models

Minors not yet 18 may not be employed or exhibited as models without a permit from the New York State Department of Labor.  Please see the Child Performer section of our website for all information regarding this permit.

 

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